2016年11月18日 (金)

The Quranic Concept of War の著者、S.K.Malik准将関連


It was General Zia who ushered in a new era of Islamisation, bigotry and blasphemy laws targeting minorities, and nurtured radical, armed Islamic groups bent on waging jihad across the world. Officers recruited in his era are three-star Generals today, and the army is largely motivated by the ideology of the “Quranic Concept of War” articulated by his protégé Brigadier (later Major General) S.K. Malik.

Describing anyone who stands in the way of jihad as an “aggressor”, Malik held that “the aggressor is always met and destroyed in his own country”. Malik also had a unique view of the concept of “terror”.

He averred: “Terror struck into the heart of the enemy is not only a means. It is an end in itself. Once a condition of terror into the opponent's heart is obtained, hardly anything is left to be achieved. Terror is not a means of imposing a decision upon the enemy, it is the decision we wish to impose on him. It is a point where the means and end merge.”

This is precisely what was sought to be “imposed” on the ill-fated people killed in the Victoria Terminus in Mumbai on 26/11.


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2016年7月16日 (土)




Why the Turkish Coup Will Likely Fail  JULY 16, 2016  より引用。
There are multiple indications that followers of the Gulen movement embedded within the military are spearheading the coup attempt. The Gulenists are an Islamist movement that has built up significant influence in Turkey since the 1970s. They started with the gendarmerie, where they could take advantage of lax background checks, and gradually worked their way up the military chain of command. When President Recep Tayyip Erdogan felt that the Gulen movement had become too powerful, relations started to fray between the ruling party and the Gulenists. Starting in 2014, massive purges took place to whittle down Gulenist influence in the media and government.

Gülen movement は勉強しないとな。

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2012年6月10日 (日)

The Quranic Concept of War

The Quranic Concept of Warは、パキスタン軍のS.K.Malik准将が著したもの。

書評としては、JOSEPH C. MYERS, "The Quranic Concept of War,"Parameters, Winter 2006-2007, pp.118-121.がよろし。

Sebastian Gorka, "Inside Al-Qaeda," Armchair General, May 2012, PP.42-49.に掲載されている記事に記載されているらしい。

全文は、Wolf Pangloss Moral clarity in the Global Counterjihad and Each Local Counterjihad というサイト で読めます。
"The Quranic Concept of War and Terror,"Existential Space, Dec 15 2005, にもありますが、めんどくさいので読んでません。

が、Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, The Islamic Leviathan: Islam and the Making of State Power (Oxford Univ Pr, 2001).読むとよろし。インドネシアとパキスタンの事例で、高卒公務員でも理解可能。

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2010年2月 3日 (水)

アラビア半島のアルカイダ(Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula:AQAP)組織図


Frederick Kagan, Chris Harnisch, Katherine Zimmerman,Katherine Zimmerman, "Yemen: Fighting al Qaeda in a Failing State", criticalthreats, January 11, 2010.より引用。


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2010年1月15日 (金)



“[I]nspite of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902, although that treaty did imply that the British would let the Japanese alone in Korea while the Japanese did the same with the British in Tibet.”以下資料より引用。なお、この部分の注釈なし。

Scott Berry, Monks, Spies and a soldier of Fortune,” (London: Athlone, 1995), p.56.

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2009年5月24日 (日)

パキスタン陸軍MBT Al Zarrar 関連



Mobile Bulletin - 1935GMT - 07 May 09

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2007年5月 7日 (月)



"The moment a teenage girl was stoned to death for loving the wrong boy," Daily Mail, 3 May 2007, <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/worldnews.html?in_article_id=452288&in_page_id=1811>(7 May 2007)


Du’a Khalil Aswadさんに合掌。





Robert Cooper, The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century, (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 200)

Francis Fukuyama, State-building:Governance and world Order in the 21st century (New York:Cornell University ress, 2004)

Thomas P.M.Barnett, The Pentagon’s New Map: War and Peace in the Twenty-First Century (New York: G.P.Putnam’s Sons, 2004)

Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty

<http://www.iciss.ca/pdf/Commission-Report.pdf>(7 May 2007)

なおブレジンスキーは新著で、NATO諸国を含む大西洋同盟諸国と我が国との協力拡大を提唱している。Zbigniew Brzezinski, Second Chance: Three Presidents and the Crisis of American superpower (New York: Basic Books, 2007), pp.212-213.あたり。当然、人道的介入も求められるであろう。

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2007年4月 9日 (月)


"Lashkar-e-Taiba would plan to assassinate the exiled Tibet Chief,"
delivered on April 6, 2007 by the International Security Research & Intelligence Agency (ISRIA)
The Chinese Connection

Dr. Mahesh Yadavによると、LeTによる暗殺は、"under the influence of China”.とのこと。
また、ダライ・ラマ法王はドルジェ・シュクデン派によって敵視されている。"one of 14 top Tibetan leaders on the hitlist of the Dorje Shugden cult, a radical group opposed to Tibet's government-in exile. The Tibetan government-in-exile has accused China of playing up Dolgyal devotees of "counter the influence of the DalaiLama and weaken support for Tibet's independence." Chinese government still seems determined to sow dissent within the ranks of Tibetans. "Dolgyal has been a real and direct threat against the Dalai Lama in the late 1990s. But it failed to kill him. Now China could play the LeT'scard in order to polarize islamists against buddhists" a pro-free Tibet activist told. What's unclear is such alleged chinese strategy would be to fuel tensions between islamists and buddhists while its northwestern region of Xinjiang remains at risk because of a growing pro-islamist protest. "China's goal could be to trigger a larger confrontation in order to justify a backlash against Xinjiang-based activists" an analyst said. Another bone of contention between the Dalai Lama and the Chinese Central Government is the “alarming”rate of Chinese migrants coming to Tibet.

90年代にも、中国からチベット仏教過激派を「亡命」させ、所要の目的を達成しようとしていたと報道されているhttp://www.time.com/time/asia/asia/magazine/1998/980928/dalai_lama.html (6 Apr 2007)
SEPTEMBER 28, 1998 VOL. 152 NO. 12
Angry Spirit
Tibetan exiles allege that China is supporting a Buddhist sectarian feud that resulted in a foiled

attempt to assassinate the Dalai LamaBy TIM McGIRK

↑によると、国境を越えてきた「難民」は、This Tibetan, named Chomphel, was a Chinese spy, Indian police say. His mission may have been to scope out security flaws for a possible attack on the Tibetan religious leader.


Under questioning, Chomphel allegedly confessed that he was a member of a Chinese army intelligence unit. "He's no ordinary refugee," says police superintendent Kashmir Chand Sadyal. "He's very knowledgeable and quite an expert in several things, including cartography." Tibetan security officials disclosed that during interrogation, Chomphel said that his superiors had sent him to India to gather intelligence for "a further action" against the Dalai Lama involving 10 to 15 Chinese agents later this year. Many of his drawings centered on the temple outside the Dalai Lama's residence, leading some Tibetan security officials in Dharamsala to believe that the Chinese might have intended to blow up the house during one of the spiritual leader's gatherings. Next month, film star Richard Gere and other Tibetan Buddhism devotees are expected to attend a Dalai Lama teaching session at this same temple.


Says a senior police officer: "The Chinese are sending many spies across to Dharamsala." Some exiles also maintain that China, in its battle against the Tibetans' god-king, sometimes mixes Marxism with a touch of black magic. They accuse Beijing of recruiting the followers of a wrathful Tibetan spirit known as Dorje Shugden. This deity has tens of thousands of Tibetan worshippers--plus a contingent of Western Buddhist fans. Described as having four fangs "sharp like the ice of a glacier," three blood-red eyes and hair like flaming serpents, Dorje Shugden has become a supernatural enemy of the Dalai Lama. His fashion sense attests to his ugly mood: Dorje Shugden sports a necklace of 50 severed heads. Repeatedly over the past decade, the Dalai Lama has warned that Dorje Shugden poses a threat to both Tibet's struggle to regain independence from China and his own personal safety. What more could the Chinese want in a new, otherworldly friend?

SEPTEMBER 28, 1998 VOL. 152 NO. 12
This combat between the Dalai Lama and the snarling deity has already crossed out of the realm of sorcery and into reality--with gruesome consequences. A respected Tibetan dialectics professor who publicly opposed Dorje Shugden worship was ritually slaughtered in February of last year along with two students. The academic, Lobsang Gyatso, 70, had been one of the Dalai Lama's closest allies in the struggle with the deity. Indian detectives discovered that the six suspected Tibetan assassins made several telephone calls to the Dorje Shugden Society headquarters in New Delhi en route to the slayings. Says former police superintendent Rajeev Kumar, who investigated the case: "The link is clearly established between the murderers and the Dorje Shugden cult. The killings were religiously motivated." The assassins fled through Nepal back to Tibet and have since vanished. Their border crossing was allegedly unhampered by Chinese authorities, even though returning Tibetans are often subjected to arrest and interrogation.

Tibetan exiles and Indian investigators suspect Beijing is manipulating the feud between Shugden supporters and the Dalai Lama's government-in-exile. Across Tibet, the Chinese are giving funds to rebuild Shugden shrines and temples destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. Sonam Topgyal, a Dalai Lama cabinet minister, claims that government workers who professed to be devotees of the wrathful god were given special cash bonuses for the Tibetan New Year. The Chinese press gleefully prints accusations by Shugden supporters that the Dalai Lama is imposing "religious dictatorship" on his people.

Indian authorities are investigating the possibility of a link between the two alleged Chinese spies and Shugden devotees. But according to Geshe Cheme Tsering, general secretary of the Dorje Shugden Society in New Delhi, "This is just police speculation. We don't come into the picture at all." Still, those in charge of the Tibetan spiritual leader's security are taking threats against his life seriously. Last January, police began receiving reports that the Dalai Lama might be in danger from disgruntled Shugden-ites. They urged him to cancel a trip to Tibetan refugee communities in southern India--a center of Shugden support--but he refused. "For us, the threat perception is very serious, and we've got to maintain round-the-clock surveillance," says an official. Besides the Dalai Lama's personal security force of Tibetans, a contingent of 100 policemen now guards the Tibetan leader's residence at Dharamsala.

Some Indian officials doubt that the Chinese would want to kill off the Dalai Lama, especially so soon after U.S. President Bill Clinton, on his recent trip to Beijing, championed the exile leader. A better strategy, say Indian experts on China, would be to wait for the Dalai Lama, who is now 63, simply to die. Then there would be nobody to defy Beijing's rule in Tibet. But the Chinese may not have the patience to wait for him to pass away naturally. A secret 1994 Chinese government report, leaked to human rights groups, admonished that "to kill a snake you must crush his head." With reporting by Meenakshi Ganguly and Maseeh Rahman/New Delhi


The story below was published last week in Blitz, an Indian Magazine by
Bijender Sharma.

>From Bijender Sharma in Dharamsala

The Dalai Lama, Tibet's exiled spiritual leader, is facing assassination
threats from an extremist Tibetan cult that many believe is fostered and
funded by China.

The Dalai Lama is one of 14 top Tibetan leaders on the hitlist of the Dorje
Shugden cult, a radical group opposed to the Chinese-occupied country's
government-in exile base here. Fears over the Dalai Lama's safety have been
heightened following the Feb. 4 knifing to death of Lobsang Gyatso, the
principal of the Dharamsala based Tibetan Dialectics Institute (TDI), and two
of his students-allegedly by the cult.

In the wake of the triple murder, top Intelligence Bureau officers and senior
officials of the External Affairs Ministry came to this sanctuary in the
foothills of the Himalayas to review security arrangements for the Dalai
Lama. The Indian officials and the Tibetan government-in-exile have chalked
out an elaborate plan to protect the Dalai Lama from coming to harm at the
hands of the cult, which terms the Nobel Peace Prize winner a political
rather than spiritual leader.

The Dorje Shugden cult, also known Gyalchen Shugden, indulges in the worship
of a spirit called Dolgyal, a practice that has been frowned upon by the
Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama has stated that the "inclination of this
(Dolgyal) spirit is to harm, rather than benefit, the cause of Tibet," but
that hasn't stopped the cult from coming into prominence, more so over the
past two years.

The Tibetan government-in-exile has gone a step further in its criticism of
the cult, saying it is "harmful to the personal safety of the Dalai lama" and
that ordinary Tibetans could only practice it at the expense of Tibet's
national interest. Neutral observers are convinced that the cult is backed,
even sponsored, by a Chinese government determined to sow dissent with the
ranks of Tibetans and eliminate those at the forefront of the Tibetan
struggle for freedom.

The Tibetan government-in-exile has accused China of playing up Dolgyal
devotees of "counter the influence of the Dalai Lama and weaken support for
Tibet's independence." The cult has offices in, among other places, Italy
and Britain, where it operates under the banner of the Shugden Supporters
Community. Its Indian headquarters is in Delhi's Manjnu-ka-Tilla area, from
where its coordinates the activities of its fundamentalist followers.

The cult has plenty of funds flowing from foreign sources into its account,
an aspect which is now under investigation by Indian intelligence agencies.
Meanwhile, the Himachal Pradesh police has, in a confidential report to
central intelligence agencies called for "close and strict surveillance of
Dorje Shugden followers residing in Delhi and Banglore," where the majority
of Tibetan refugees outside of Dharamsala reside.

Sources in the Tibetan government-in-exile allege that the priority for Dorje
Shugden activists is to encourage violence and tension between locals in
Dharamsala and Tibetan refugees with the objective of undermining the Dalai
Lama's spiritual and temporal authority. Cult members are the prime suspects
in the murder of TDI principal Gyatso - the most vocal of those opposed to
the cult - and his two students.

Gyatso, a close confidant of the Dalai Lama, was warned some time back by the
cult through a letter sent from its Delhi headquarters. Gyatso had been on a
visit to Hong Kong last month and on his arrival in Delhi, security personnel
noticed some suspicious looking men at the airport.

Now thought to be the killers, they followed Gyatso to Dharamsala in an
Ambassador car hired at the Delhi airport. They then used another car to
make getaway after brutally murdering the professor and two of his students.
The state police thinks the killers are now hiding in the Tibetan settlement
in Bangalore. Jamphel Yeshi, the president of a body representing Dorje
Shugden believers, is seen by the police as the key man in the case. The
police have also arrested a suspect whose confessional statement is expected
to provide the leads that will help unravel the conspiracy behind the triple
murder. The suspect, only known as Kelshan, was, according to highly
placed sources, paid Rs. 10,000 in Delhi recently to incite local Indians
against Tibetan settlers.

The strategy of the cult seems to be two-pronged: elimination of all staunch
Dalai Lama disciples and the provoking of clashes that would drive a wedge
between locals and refugees. Among the 14 prominent religious leaders
believed to be on the cult's hit-list are Prof. Samdhong Rimpoche, the
speaker of the Tibetan Assembly and two ministers in the government-in-
exile. Rimpoche has already been provided with extra security, as have been
the others under threat.

Protecting the Dalai Lama, though, is the priority. On the advice of Indian
intelligence agencies orders have been placed for the immediate installation
of sophisticated security equipment at the Dalai Lama's palace. It has been
decided to replace the barbed wire fencing around the palace with a nine-foot
high wall. Sources have told BLITZ that the screening of Tibetans working
inside the palace has also begun. Special passes are being issued to the
palace staff and authorities have placed a Special Frontier Force unit
comprising Tibetans on alert. Additionally, the External Affairs Ministry
considering buying a bullet-proof Mercedes car for the Tibetan leader.

The costs for the extra security which is expected to cost Rs 6 crore, will
be borne by the Centre. The Dalai Lama is presently on a pathbreaking
six-day "private visit" to Tawain, a tour that is guaranteed to further
antagonise Chinese authorities, bringing together as it does Beijing's twin

World Tibet Network News
Tuesday, July 16, 1996 


2. The Strength of the Dalai Lama Tibet may well upset Western rapprochement with China

The Guardian - London
16 July 1996

THE DALAI LAMA'S visit to England is different this time, and not just
because he will he picketed by a rival Buddhist sect. Though the Tibetan
problem has long seemed remote and unchanging, it is moving into an
un-settled phase which the outside world will find harder to ignore. China
has tightened its grip, sounding a flew note of alarm about "splittist"
activities. Western governments cannot decide how far to condone Chinese
rule, sending mixed signals to Beijing. And in the Tibetan capital, where
violence so far has been entirely inflicted by the Chinese army, there have
been the first, small bombs.

The origins in this country of the Dorje Shugden sect now lobbying
aggressively against the Dalal Lama are something of a mystery. Shugden is
a typical wrathful deity of a type reflect-ing the early influence of "Bon"
shamanism in Tibet and it has played a divisive role before at times of
crisis. A few years ago, the Dalai Lama warned that the spread of Buddhism
in the West had led to "a tendency towards sectarianism" which was "Poison"
for the religion. It is poisoning the atmo-sphere now in ways which can
only gratify the Chinese. Whatever differ-ences there may be between this
sect and the main stream of loyal worship, it is preposterous for a bunch
of foreign devotees to denounce a spiritual leader revered often at the
cost of persecution by nearly all Tibetans in Tibet.

Beijing's decision to ban portraits of the Dalai Lama, generally tolerated in
monasteries and the marketplace, illustrates both the strength of his
appeal and a deep sense of Chinese insecurity. It follows Beijing's
heavy-handed intervention last year to impose its own - choice of a new
Panchen Lama. China has also begun to talk of "sabotage and - assassination
by the (Tibetan) splittists". China is going through an ultra-nationalist
phase with Hong Kong and Taiwan high on the patriotic agenda. Growing
militancy among Muslim Ui-ghurs in the neighbouring region of Xinjiang also
heightens Beijing's unease. The dogmatism of Tibetan offi-cials who were
never purged after the Cultural Revolution is another factor. But Tibetans
too are becoming more militant: China may regret its rejection of the Dalai
Lama's more moderate agenda for real autonomy.

Actions such as the bomb in March outside the communist party headquarters
in Lhasa would have been unthink-able before. Chinese brutality in Gan-den
and other monasteries will, on past experience, not deter more calls for
independence. A new cycle of resis-tance and repression will seriously
embarrass Western governments which, led by the US, are drifting into a
policy of "constructive engagement." Though the Hong Kong handover still
lies ahead, Britain is already working for a new trading relationship.
Tiananmen Square is far behind: Washington seeks a US-China summit next
year. But the emotive issue of Tibet could yet upset these equations.

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2007年4月 5日 (木)



下記報道によると、アル・カイダal-Qa'idaと関連のあるとされるイスラム系武装組織であるラシュカレ・トイバ(Lashkar-e-Toiba)がダライ・ラマ法王を暗殺を企図しており、法王の身辺警護が強化された。インドの警察のスポークスマンであるSuperintendent Prem Lalが発言した。 Bruce Loudon,"Terror group's threat raises Dalai Lama alert," The Australian, 3 Apr 2007, <http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,21493416-2703,00.html> (4 Apr 2007)

なお、下記報道ではthe Deputy Inspector General of Himachal Pradesh Police, North Range, Dharamshala は、ダライ・ラマ法王に対する脅威に関する報道を否定している。"Himachal police rules out any security threat to Dalai Lama," ANI, 2 Apr 2007, <http://www.dailyindia.com/show/130337.php/Himachal-police-rules-out-any-security-threat-to-Dalai-Lama> 以下は、↑より引用。"Speaking to ANI this evening, DIG P.L. Thakur said, "We have read this news. We have geared up the security of the Dalai Lama as precautionary majors, but we have no confirmed definite inputs from security agencies". "


チベット亡命政府に対しては、中国からの恒常的な脅威が存在する。その一部としては、ジル・ヴァン・グラスドルフが自著で示すところによると、中国が一部の過激派のチベット人をインドに意図的に「亡命」させ、チベット亡命政府を攻撃しているという事案がある。同国は、チベット仏教の中で特に過激な「ドルジェ・シュクデン」信奉者への援助を行っている。中国は同派の僧院を増やす政策をとっており、チベット以外に存在する同派の僧院にも経済援助をしている。「ドルジェ・シュクデン」信奉者の一部はインドに「亡命」し、97年2月5日「仏教論理大系学院」の院長でありダライ・ラマの顧問であるロプサン・ギャンツォを、ダラムサラで殺害している 。
ジル・ヴァン・グラスドルフ著、鈴木敏弘訳『ダライ・ラマ その知られざる真実』(河出書房新社:2004年)418-521頁。

さらに、中国が宗教を用いてインド国内での影響力を拡大しているとも指摘されている。STRATFORが以下のように報じていた。タイムズ・オブ・インディア紙が入手したインドの情報機関の報告書によると、「ラダックからアルナチャル・プラデシュに至るヒマラヤベルトでは、チベット仏教の影響は広く及んでいる。11を下らない数の僧院が、中国の庇護を受けていると見られるチベット僧を長としている」、としている 。 “Beijing Employs Religious Strategy in Himalayas,” Stratfor, 8 Mar 2001, <http://www.stratfor.com/products/premium/read_article.php?id=101450> (21 Mar 2001).



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2006年11月26日 (日)


CENTCOMのアビザイド(Abizaid)大将が、第3次大戦の可能性を警告した内容は↓にあり。ハーバード大学出身の同大将が出身校で講演。Commander John Philip Abizaid, "The Long War,"Harvard University Institute of Politics, 17 Nov 2006,
<http://ksgaccman.harvard.edu/iop/events_forum_video.asp?ID=3048> 同人の講演内容は以下からDL可能。件の第3次大戦関連は、21分30秒、32分40秒辺りで発言している。
<http://iopforum.harvard.edu/mp3/fr20061117abizaid.mp3> (54メガくらいある)本人が喋ってる時間はそんなに長くない。現時点で原稿はUPされていない。

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